This document should be used to guide clinicians on the appropriate use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), non-invasive ventilation (NIV, here referring to bilevel positive airway pressure, BiPAP) and high flow nasal oxygen (HFNO, such as OptiflowTM) in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Published evidence, clinical guidelines and
personal communications with colleagues in China and Italy have informed this document.
The guidance is not designed to be prescriptive but to provide a useful aid to use alongside clinical judgement. It can be adjusted to suit individual clinical environments. Decisions relating to the escalation of ventilatory support (whether as a trial of treatment, as a ceiling of care, or as a possible bridge to ongoing invasive ventilation) need to be made early and by experienced clinical decision-makers.